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Monday, December 24, 2012

SOIL CONSERVATION USING FLY ASH BRICKS


Fly ash, Lime calcined gypsum and sand, with requisite quantity of
Water is mixed in proper proportions which produces slow setting
Cement, the resultant mass pressed is in to bricks of any desired strength. These bricks can be used in building constructional activities instead of common burnt clay bricks. These bricks are lighter in weight and stronger than common burnt clay bricks. The generation of fly ash in India by thermal power stations is more than 100 million tones per annum (in December 2010). One kilogram of coal of fired yields fly ash ranging from 200 to 500 grams. At present only 6% fly ash being utilized.
             180 billion tones of common burnt clay bricks are consumed annually. Approximately 340 billion tones of clay – about 5000 acres of top layer of soil dug out for bricks manufacture. Soil erosion, and emission from coal burning or fire woods which causes deforestation are the serious problems posed by brick industry. The above problems can be reduced some extent by using fly ash bricks in dwelling units.
Demand for dwelling units likely to rise to 80 million units by
year 2015 for lower middle and low income groups, involving an
Estimated investment of $670 billion, according to the Associated
Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Assocha). Demand for dwelling
units will further grow to 90 million by 2020, which would requires a
minimum investment of $890 billion. The Indian housing sector at
present faces a shortage of 20 million dwelling units for its lower middle and low income groups which will witness a spurt of about 22.5 million dwelling, units by the end of Tenth plan period. There is ample scope for fly ash brick and block units.
                    So by using this type of bricks we not only conserve our environment from degradation, also made a positive step to preserve our precious top soils. 

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

MOTHER PLANET-SOURCE OF ENERGY


If we utilize the whole Energy that was created in a single day in our Planet naturally, then we can power the whole world for 27 years.
                        Considering this the whole world try to utilize this energy. Using Wind, Solar, Tidal & other non-conventional source.
                         However, India only utilizes 4-6% of its non-conventional energy. We as Indian have to do lots of work. If Government of India does not act immediately on this, it will effect our environment as well as our growing economy.


Tuesday, August 14, 2012

PRECISION FARMING


In India, the soil rather than crop is irrigated. As a result, 70 per cent of the water is wasted, say’s Aloke Adholeya, Director of The Energy Research Institute’s (TERI) Biotechnology & Bioresources Division. Precision farming, however, relies on drip irrigation. “With drips, we just wet the soil near the roots. How much water use is determined by the climate, soil type, crop type & age. The drip system is also used to “fertigate” the crop-disseminate soluble fertilizer-& the extent of fertilizer used depends on the soil’s need.
                               
                                   SOURCE: N.MADHAVAN IN BUSINESS TODAY  

Thursday, August 9, 2012

LIGHTING UP


In 1994, nearly half a century after India independence, Mullaria village in Kerala’s Kasargod district still had no access to electricity. In this, it was no different from two thirds of India. Kerosene lanterns lit most homes in the village, darkening walls & blackening lungs. But Mullaria would usher in a quite revolution, thanks to Handattu Harish Hande. An alumnus of IIT-Kharagapur, & PhD in energy engineering from the University of Massachusetts (Lowell). Hande has devised a solar lighting system.
                         It was a visit to the Dominican Republic in 1991, & specifically his exposure to the work of Richard Hansen, which showed Hande how solar energy could transform the lives of the poor. While working on his doctorate, he traveled to the tiny Caribbean nation & saw for himself how Hansen, an American engineer who shifted there in 1984, had used solar energy to provide electricity to thousands of poor Dominicans. Hande decided to do something similar in this own country.

                 (BY-K.R.BALASUBRAMANYAN in Business Today)

Monday, July 30, 2012

ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION


The construction sector is an important part of the Indian economy with a contribution of 10% in GDP and registering an annual growth of 9%. The Indian brick industry is the second largest producer of bricks in the world after China. The brick production in India is estimated at 140 billion bricks, consuming 24 million tonnes of coal along with huge quantity of biomass fuels. The total CO2 emissions are estimated at 41.6 million tonne accounting for 4.5% of total GHG emissions from India. Brick production in India takes place in small units, using manual labour and traditional firing technologies. Large demand for bricks in urban centers has resulted in mushrooming of brick kiln clusters at the outskirts of major towns and cities. These brick clusters are important source of local air pollution (SPM, SO2, fugitive emissions, etc) affecting local population, agriculture and vegetation.
                             Apart from air pollution, brick industry also consumes good quality top soil for brick making. The industry is estimated to consume 350 million tonne of top soil every year.
                               The goal of INDIAGREENO project is to reduce energy consumption, and restrict GHG emissions by creating appropriate infrastructure for sustained adoption of new and improved technologies for production and use of resource efficient bricks in India through Durgapur Bricks and Projects

Thursday, July 5, 2012

CARBON CREDIT


A carbon credit is a generic term meaning that a value has been assigned to a reduction or offset of greenhouse gas emissions. One carbon credit is equal to one tonne of carbon di-oxide, or in some markets, carbon di-oxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach.

 Carbon Footprint: Carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of our activities on the environment, & in particular on climate change. It relates to the amount of green house gases we are producing in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating, transportation, etc. Our Carbon ‘footprint’ is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce. It is measured in units of tonne (or Kg) of carbon di-oxide equivalent. A carbon footprint is a total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon di-oxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.
                                   A carbon footprint is made up of the sum of two parts, the primary footprint & the secondary footprint.
                          1. The primary footprint is a measure of our direct emissions of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels including domestic energy consumption & transportation (e.g. car & plane). We have direct controls of these.
                          2. The secondary foot print is a measure of the indirect CO2 emissions from the whole lifecycle of products we use- those associated with their manufacture & eventual breakdown. To put it very simple-the more we buy the more emissions will be caused on our behalf.      

  

Monday, February 13, 2012

ENVIRONMETAL LEGISLATIONS


THE ENVIRONMENT Protection Act of 1986 (EPA)

 Some Notifications issued under this Act are-
The Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects Notification, (1994, amended in 1997):
                                As per the notification all projects listed under schedule I require environmental clearance from the MoEF. Projects under the de-licensed category of the new industrial policy also require clearance from the MoEF. All development projects whether or not under the schedule I, if located in fragile regions must obtain MoEF clearance.
                                Industrial Projects with investment above Rs. 500 million must obtain MoEF clearance & are further required to obtain a LOI (Letter of Intent) from the ministry of Industry & an NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the SPCB & the state forest department if the location involves forestland. Once the NOC is obtained, the LOI is converted into an industrial license by the state authority.
                               The notification also stipulated procedural requirements for the establishment & operation of new power plants. As per this notification, two-stage clearance for the site-specific projects such as pithead thermal power plants and valley projects is required. Site clearance is given in the first stage & the final environmental clearance in the second. A public hearing has been made mandatory for projects covered by this notification. This is an important step in providing transparency & a greater role to local communities.